The August 19, 1945, mission is often characterized as having “carried Japan’s surrender delegation,” but the officers aboard had no such function; the surrender was actually ratified on September 2. It was brought to the United States aboard a U. S. Navy aircraft carrier along with 145 other Japanese aircraft selected for test and evaluation. The Betty’s swan song would have involved a fleet of some 60 troop-carrying G4Ms (their roomy fuselages made them particularly appropriate for this) that were to simultaneously land on Guam, Saipan and Tinian. (U.S. Navy). Japan's newest and most advanced bomber made the trip, disassembled and stacked on five ox-drawn farm carts, over unpaved roads! Her first flight after restoration was in March of 1999. We teamed up in 2010 to bring our 30+ combined years of experience and artistry to the Savannah restaurant scene with Butterhead Greens Café. Recognize your favorite air or space enthusiast. Travel Photo by Dan Collier. This BETTY was flight-tested as Foreign Equipment Test number T2-2205. Before serial production of the Betty began in 1940, Mitsubishi was ordered to first create a G4M heavy fighter variant designated the G6M1. In August 1942, during the Guadalcanal campaign and this time escorted by fighters, 18 out of 23 attacking Bettys were shot down—the single worst G4M loss during the entire campaign. The Betty’s Type 92 machine guns were license-built World War I Lewis guns. Whether his engineering team found it aesthetically pleasing is open to question. This aircraft, coded '302,' was the last flyable bomber left at Rabaul by the end of WWII. This World War II Japanese Mini Submarine is in the process of being restored on the island of Guam for their museum. Some ships never knew they had been attacked, since the Ohkas glided into the Pacific before even coming within sight. About half the crew manned the defensive gun positions. Airpower proponent Billy Mitchell might have told them this was a dumb idea, having demonstrated in the early 1920s what bombers could do to capital ships. Nor was it a factor during the early days of WWII, when Bettys ranged virtually unopposed against the Philippines, Australia and, in their greatest single victory, against the Royal Navy. One of the best-known Betty carcasses was on display for years at the Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, Calif. The Rikko was Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto’s idea, abetted by the young, air-minded naval officers in his orbit. x 63ft 11 11/16in., 15432.2lb., 82ft 1/4in. She is now based at the Dakota Territory Air Museum in Minot, ND. The Rikko assignment went straight to Mitsubishi, which had already paid its bomber-building dues with the G2M and G3M. This photo can also be found in Warpath Across the Pacific. He incorporated 7.7 mm (.30 cal.) After arriving at the airfield, the first G4M was reassembled and flown by test pilot Katsuzo Shima on October 23, 1939. During 1944, this Betty was photographed by B-25 Mitchell from the 3rd Bomb Group during a low level strike against the airfield. Don’t miss our fast-paced webcasts designed to engage students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in 30 minutes. It missed, but it has been written that the entire corps of Rikko pilots, aware that they were riding fiery mounts, had agreed to seek out a target to crash into if their airplane was terminally damaged. This Betty was abandoned at the edge of the runway at Babo Airfield. They would disgorge hundreds of commandos dressed in USAAF uniforms. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's, IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. There are currently no complete examples of the Betty in preservation in the world save for a rather fragile, belly-landed example (G4M1 Model 1 1 m/n 1280) recov ered by Bruce Fenstermaker from Babo Airfield in Indonesia during 1991. FS2004 FSX Mitsubishi G4M1 Betty bomber Codenamed Betty by the Allies, the Mitsubishi G4M long-range medium bomber remained in service with the Japanese navy from the first to the last day of the war. Only one U.S. ship, the destroyer Mannert L. Abele, was ever sunk by an Ohka, and it cost six out of the eight attacking Bettys. (U.S. Navy). Sentimental Journey (44-83514) is the nickname of a B-17G Flying Fortress bomber. For years it was assumed that the Japanese simply didn’t know how to make good paint, but the reason was even more basic. Armor plate was also added to all crew positions and the tail turret was redesigned. Click on any of the below pictures for full resolution. (His friend Horikoshi seems to have taken the technique to heart in designing the Zero.) Operationally, BETTY crews achieved much in their first year of combat. Almost certainly it will eventually be fully restored and placed on display. The Classic Bomber $10 The All-American Classic, 6 oz. The white-painted airplane carried officials charged with arranging details of the Japanese surrender. During the invasion of Okinawa in April 1945, the U. S. Navy lost 21 vessels sunk and 217 damaged. Air Show Report D-Day Squadron Flypast Over Washington, DC May 17, 2019 Editor 0. Four days later, two BETTY bombers landed at Ie Shima Island. One highly regarded Japanese book about Bettys in combat is titled Wings of Flame. It was a surprisingly agile aircraft with a long range. They devastated Clark Field, Philippine Islands, on December 8, 1941, and participated in sinking the British battleships HMS "Prince of Wales" and HMS "Repulse" on December 10. A G4M1 and a G6M1-L, whitewashed and given green-cross insignia, carried a group of Japanese officers assigned the job of arranging the details of surrender negotiations. Escorted by four RNZAF Vought F4U-1 Corsair fighters, it was flown to Jacquinot Bay on October 14,1945 by … Douglas couldn’t have played its hand better if it had tried. This is part 1 of a phorogrammetry project on the Betty Bomber plane wreck in Truk Lagoon with an emphasis on reconstructing the sections that have been destroyed… Betty Bomber - Virtual Reconstruction - Part 1 on Vimeo Afterwards, both wings were removed and placed near the fuselage, possibly in an attempt to repair the bomber or for spare parts. One ran off the runway during takeoff from Ie Shima and damaged its landing gear; the other ran out of fuel and ditched short of its destination in Japan. As the war dragged on, improved bombers failed to materialize so Mitsubishi fielded different versions of the G4M to fulfill new missions, and to eliminate the various weaknesses in the basic design. The aircraft is regularly flown to airshows throughout North America. The Type 91 had been designed specifically for the Hawaii attack and Pearl Harbor’s shallow water, though there it was carried by single-engine, carrier-launched Nakajima B5N2 Kates. The Airacomet was the first jet aircraft in U.S. service, and this example, s/n 12-108777, is believed to be the tenth airframe in the production run. Rather than pull all-nighters, he spent a lot of time in Cambridge playing poker. A member of the three-man intelligence team that picked the names thus immortalized a one-night stand. Destined to be the main Japanese land-based bomber for the entire war, it was, like other Japanese planes, state of the art at the beginning of World War II but grossly outmatched by American models later in the war. It was the first time that aircraft alone had sunk fully maneuverable capital ships at sea. From the first day of war until after the surrender, BETTY bombers saw service throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Yamamoto’s weapon of choice was the torpedo, and the Betty was first and foremost a torpedo bomber, carrying a single 1,890-pound Type 91 tin fish—the world’s most accurate and powerful aerial torpedo right up until the end of the war. Nor did he provide armor for the crew. Honjo apparently also decided that an untapered fuselage ending in a large tail-gunner’s station made sense aerodynamically. Later, the airplane was dismembered with a cutting torch but when and precisely why are not known. The DC-4E design proved to be so bad that the company started over again, producing the successful DC-4 airliner. From my understanding, the Betty will be restored, but there is no current schedule for it. Physically, the G4M’s salient feature was a fat but graceful fuselage quite unlike the tapering configuration of typical WWII medium bombers. It currently consists of a fully restored fuselage, much of it fabricated by Harada’s restorers, in a museum near Tokyo. The two rearmost and outermost Nells were, no surprise, found to suffer the highest casualties from opposing fighters. It was the first gun ever fired from an airplane, a Wright Model B Flyer, in 1912. As a result of these modifications, the fuselage was shortened and the center-of-gravity shifted forward. Betty was actually a waitress in Pennsylvania. They were painted in special 'surrender markings,' white overall with green crosses replacing the Japanese Hinomaru or red "meatball" national insignia. The admiral’s own noted punctuality doomed him, for the two G4Ms carrying him and his aides intersected perfectly with 16 P-38 Lightnings sent on a precise mission to intercept him over Bougainville, and Yamamoto died in the very airplane that he had helped create. Two of the crew were killed during the attack. It is estimated that by the end of the war, 5,000 pilots had died making Tokko attacks and the damage they wrought was severe. Sorry, there was a problem. Other Betty bombers witness the Betty ditch and noted the location as "Sugaaba Island". Six escorting Zeros flew guard but in a matter of seconds, the Air Corps pilots shrugged off the escorting fighters and sent both BETTYs crashing down in flames. The brainchild of Pearl Harbor planner Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, G4M1s fly in formation off the Japanese coast. The atomic bombs put an end to this sideshow. The end had arrived for the Japanese and the BETTY bomber. Drum-fed from an archaic 47-round pancake magazine atop the gun, the Lewis had a long history of aviation use. For the remainder of the war, the BETTY assembly line continued to run. Yamamoto was a smart guy, even though he only got a C+ for his two years of English studies at Harvard from 1919 to 1921. Amid it all came one of the Betty’s most notorious flights: the mission to carry Admiral Yamamoto on an inspection tour of the Solomon Islands in April 1943. The U. S. Army Air Corps conducted a similar experiment using a modified Boeing B-17 bomber designated the B-40 but this idea too failed to survive operational testing and was soon abandoned. Used to deliver a varied payload, ranging from single torpedo to multiple bombs. The end had arrived for the Japanese and the BETTY bomber. This extremely rare Bell YP-59A Airacomet is under restoration to flying condition. It was codenamed Betty by the Allies. In one stroke, it totally removed the Royal Navy from any effective role in the Pacific War. This is probably why the wreck of the Betty Bomber is one of the most popular small dives in the Lagoon. Like the Mitsubishi Zero Fighter (also in the NASM collection), the Hamaki soldiered on long after it became obsolete, even dangerous, to fly wherever Allied interceptors prowled. Betty crews carried no parachutes, since bailing out wasn’t an option. When carrying an 800-kg (1,768 lb) torpedo or the same weight in bombs, the Navy needed the bomber to fly at least 3,700 km (2,300 mi). Both aircraft had unprecedented range but they were also extremely vulnerable to the machine gun and cannon fire from Allied fighter aircraft. The day of big-gun ships was over, though the world’s navies didn’t yet know it. One of the Betty’s last combat assignments was to carry torpedo-shaped Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka single-seat kamikaze rocket planes to within striking distance of U.S. fleets. You have successfully signed up for our newsletter. It is either on loan or in storage. The benefits of laminar flow were probably illusory on Bettys, since IJNAS aircraft of all types had paint jobs that ranged from beater-bad to junkyard special, peeling and flaking in a manner that would have tripped any incipient laminar airflow. This Betty was on display for many years at the Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California. He took over work on the Betty after returning from a fact-finding trip to the U.S. in 1938. The Allies called it the BETTY but to the men that flew the airplane, it was popularly, but unofficially, the 'Hamaki,' Japanese for cigar, in honor of the airplane's rotund, cigar-shaped fuselage. Please ensure your details are valid and try again. In order to achieve the G4M’s great range and performance, he was forced to equip it with the largest possible fuel tanks and to forego rubberized self-sealing protection for them. Air Force Academy via Jack Fellows, Mitsubishi’s G4M bomber went by many names, but perhaps the most appropriate would have been “flaming coffin.”. After the war, the USAAF was test-flying at least one Betty that had been captured in the Philippines, one of four or five flyable G4Ms that the U.S. liberated. The Allies called it the BETTY but to the men that flew the airplane, it was popularly, but unofficially, the 'Hamaki,' Japanese for cigar, in honour of the airplane's rotund, cigar-shaped fuselage. Share your story and read what others have to say. Fortunately for the Betty’s engineering team, Mitsu came up with a new 1,530-hp, 14-cylinder, twin-row radial with half again as much grunt as its predecessor had offered. Washington, DC 20560 Striking distance meant 20 miles or less, thanks to the Ohka’s tiny load of rocket fuel, and Betty pilots too often pulled the release handle early. In July 1937, the new Mitsubishi G3M bomber (Allied codename NELL) went into service in China. Against limited fighter opposition, the lack of armor and self-sealing fuel tanks was no hindrance. This maintained the internal fuel capacity but adversely affected the airplane’s aerodynamics. Find out what we’re discovering. The only Betty remnant in Japan is owned by a wealthy automotive importer/exporter, Nobuo Harada. Another BETTY variant became mother ship to the Kugisho Ohka kamikaze, or Tokko (special attack) aircraft (see NASM collection). Maybe all the remaining relatives of those slave labourers, denied even the dignity of a bullet, could crowd fund the static restoration of a Betty, and gift it to the Yakusuni shrine, to stand in memory, invariably, of brave pilots and common loss, but under the paint let the story be allowed of … The Betty’s wet wings were its tanks, with fuel cells neatly defined by the main spar and a secondary spar forward of it, the ends sealed by solid wing ribs. But as Allied fighter strength increased, the BETTY began to reveal its fatal vulnerabilities. In November 2015, billionaire Paul Allen bought the wreck for his Flying Heritage and Combat Armor Museum in Seattle. Some sources claim that Japan bought the original Douglas DC-4 prototype, the unsuccessful triple-tail design called the DC-4E, to serve as a model for a four-engine G4M. Although the G4M now had a more potent sting, Honjo again sacrificed crew protection to the Navy's demands for great range. Their next stop was the Philippines where the Allied delegation, led by General Douglas MacArthur, would witness the Japanese officials signing the surrender agreement. In 2011 it was operated by Fighter Hangar 1, now known as the Texas Flying Legends Museum. The Japanese more genially nicknamed the Betty “Hamaki” (cigar), and many sources have assumed this was a reference to the airplane’s flammability when struck by enemy fire. What did that historic mission mean to you? Bettys flew on the opening day of WWII, and they helped close out the war as well. Grilled Hamburger, seasoned, hand-packed & grilled Make it a Classic with Bacon or Cheese +$1.50 – Choice of American, Cheddar, Swiss, Provolone, Blue, or Spicy Queso The Blackout $14 A Blackened Burger, topped with Blue Cheese, Grilled Onion and Bacon The Mustang $13 Initial results were impressive, but the Navy shelved the bomber for a time in favor of a variant to be called the G6M1. Learn how aviation and spaceflight transformed the world. The old-timers in the Imperial Japanese Navy were battleship queens, and it was thanks to them that Japan constructed two expensive but supremely useless super-battleships, Yamato and Musashi, both sunk before their crews even knew the way to the wardroom. More -. More than 100 Bettys were lost over Guadalcanal. Imperial Japanese Airways did in fact purchase the DC-4E in late 1939 and immediately handed it over to Nakajima, which was ordered to produce a four-engine heavy bomber, the G5N, based on the Douglas design. Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States. Mitsubishi incorporated this same design feature in the Zero, for the same reasons and with the same results. These tanks were much lighter in weight than explosion-proof (also called 'self-sealing') gas tanks. They called the design the “snail,” sometimes translated as “slug.”. One Betty on a bomb run against Lexington had an engine shot entirely off its mounts, by Lieutenant Butch O’Hare of ORD fame, and then did its best to crash into the carrier. The Allies called it the BETTY but the men that flew the airplane nicknamed it the 'Hamaki,' Japanese for cigar, a reference to the airplane's rotund, cigar-shaped fuselage. The Betty was the product of excellent engineering pushed to the limit and then slightly beyond, to meet requirements created not by aviators but by military bureaucrats. The rocket planes were heavy—more than 4,700 pounds—so the overloaded Bettys carrying them were particularly vulnerable to fighter interception. Mortimer J. Adler, American philosopher, educator and writer. Only two months later, the Navy issued a specification to Mitsubishi for a NELL replacement. It was propelled by a tiny radial engine fueled by kerosene and compressed air, and had a surprisingly sophisticated automatic roll-control mechanism. The aircraft is quite an impressive sight, even in it's current state and well worth a look. The IJNAS requirements were a top speed of 247 mph, a maximum range of almost 3,000 statute miles and a loaded range of 2,300 miles. The U.S. Army Air Forces would later try the same thing with its YB-40s, which were B-17s carrying 18 or even more .50-caliber guns, flying as formation escorts. The lunar module represents one of humanity’s greatest achievements: landing people on another heavenly body. Kagamigahara was 48 km (30 miles) to the north. Contributing editor Stephan Wilkinson recommends for further reading: Mitsubishi G4M Betty, by Martin Ferkl, and Mitsubishi Type 1 Rikko ‘Betty’ Units of World War 2, by Osamu Tagaya. When you walk up to the Betty site the first thing you see is the huge tail standing like an enormous monolith at the site. Yamamoto’s idea, however, was not to build more ships—you could buy a thousand airplanes for the cost of a warship, he once said—but to build a land-based bomber with huge range and great speed that could quickly fly far out to sea and fight naval battles, either defending the fleet’s capital ships or attacking the enemy. It was built in greater numbers than any other Japanese bomber and it became the most famous Japanese bomber of World War II. Had they tried putting a matching mat on the exterior top of the wing tanks as well, the airplane probably would never have gotten off the ground. Order food online at Betty Bombers, Savannah with Tripadvisor: See 315 unbiased reviews of Betty Bombers, ranked #66 on Tripadvisor among 813 restaurants in Savannah. The decision not to incorporate the heavier, safer fuel tanks was necessary to meet the Navy's range requirements. Judging by what Allen has done with other such acquisitions, it is possible that this Betty will someday fly again. The official Japanese surrender delegation had boarded these two BETTYs in Kyushu. Aber manchmal, ganz selten, kann man sie auch ragen hören... Mit viel Spass an WoT, also kein können oder Skill, möchte Sie euch unterhalten und ein wenig den Vormittag vertreiben :) Mitsubishi tried again to reduce the bomber's tendency to burn. A visit to the crash site of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's G4M1 Betty 2656 on southern Bougainville, near Kokopo Village. To meet the requirements, a Mitsubishi design team led by Kiro Honjo crafted an airplane called the G4M with fuel tanks in the wings that were not resistant to explosion when punctured during combat. A Brief History. The Japanese built more of them than any other bomber during World War II. G3Ms attacked in large vee formations of 27 aircraft stacked in nine mini-vees of three aircraft each, a formation-flying nightmare. Though the Betty was initially laid out by engineer Joji Hattori, the lead designer was Kiro Honjo, a good friend of Zero fighter designer Jiro Horikoshi. So the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service laid down the parameters of what would become the Betty by basically saying, “Build a better Nell. 202-633-2214, 14390 Air and Space Museum Parkway The G4M air wings eventually learned that daytime missions against well-defended U.S. ships would result in unacceptable losses. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. The tail gun was a 20mm cannon, though a relatively ineffective one. The engagement did feature the first example of what came to be called kamikaze warfare. The American system of nicknaming World War II Japanese aircraft gave female names to bombers, male names to fighters. Crewmen on the destroyer USS Ellet observe the wreckage of a Betty that crashed during an attack off Guadalcanal on August 8, 1942. Mitsubishi aircraft were delivered to combat units in natural metal and spray-painted with camouflage in the field…without the benefit of primer. The “white Bettys” flew from Japan to Ie Shima, a small Okinawan island, where the Japanese were transferred to a C-54 and carried on to Manila to meet with Douglas MacArthur and his staff. Lieutenant Den Sudo emerges from the cockpit of his Mitsubishi G6M1-L—a “wingtip escort” heavy fighter variant of the G4M1 “Betty” bomber converted to a transport—at Ie Shima on August 19, 1945. Add his or her name to the Museum’s Wall of Honor. From the first day of war until after the surrender, BETTY bombers saw service throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This version was called the G4M Model 34. (6m x 19.5m, 7000kg, 25m), For more information, visit the Smithsonian's, There are restrictions for re-using this media. The nose art features Betty Grable, the number one pinup girl of the World War II era.The aircraft's name takes after a song made very popular by Doris Day in 1945. After restoration was in March of 1999 surprisingly sophisticated automatic roll-control mechanism to units... 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